Balkin– First Amendment Spring 2022 Syllabus

The First Amendment

Spring Semester 2022

Note: Unless otherwise noted, all references to page numbers refer to Stone, Seidman, Sunstein, Tushnet and Karlan, The First Amendment (6th ed. 2020).

Part I– Religious Liberty


1. The Text of the First Amendment; Introduction to the Religion Clauses (01/24/2022)

  • The First Amendment, p. xxxvi
  • Everson v. Board of Education and Notes, pp. 523-526
  • Note on history of the Religion Clauses, pp. 526-533
  • Note on general approaches to the Religion Clauses, pp. 533-540
  • Note on Defining Religion, pp. 540-544
  • Note on Lemon v. Kurtzman, p. 545-546
  • Notes and Lee v. Wiseman, pp. 546-559

2. State-Sponsored Prayer, Public Displays and De Facto Establishments (01/25/2022)

3. The Free Exercise Clause (01/31/2022)

  • Note and Reynolds v. U.S., pp. 617-618
  • Braunfeld v. Brown, pp. 618-619
  • Sherbert v. Verner, pp. 619-620
  • Wisconsin v. Yoder, pp. 620-622
  • Cases on mandatory accommodation, pp. 622-625
  • Employment Division v. Smith and Notes, pp. 626-634
  • Note on Required Accomodation, pp. 634-637
  • Masterpiece Cakeshop Limited v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission, pp. 637-640
  • Fulton v. City of Philadelphia and notes (on Canvas)

4. Government Aid to Religious Institutions (02/01/2022)

  • Notes and Muller v. Allen, pp. 593-600
  • Note on cases from Aguillar to Mitchell, pp. 600-606
  • Zelman v. Simmons-Harris and Notes, pp. 606-609
  • Note on Purpose and Effect in Aid to Nonpublic Education, pp. 609-615 (note Locke v. Davey, p. 609-610, and Trinity Lutheran Church v. Conner, 610-611)
  • Espinoza v Montana Department of Revenue

5. Permissible Accommodations of Religion (02/07/2022)

  • Note and Corporation of Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. Amos, pp. 641-647
  • Texas Monthly v. Bullock and Notes, pp. 647-648
  • Board of Education of Kiryas Joel School District v. Grumet and Notes pp. 648-651
  • Notes on accommodation of religion, pp. 651-655 (note RFRA and RLUIPA, note 6, pp. 654-55)
  • Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School v. EEOC, pp. 655-656
  • Note on Free Exercise, Free Speech, and the Right of Expressive Association, pp. 656-661
  • Robin Wilson, Summary of the Utah Compromise

Part II– Freedom of Speech– Content Regulation

6. Introduction to Freedom of Speech; Seditious Advocacy (02/08/2022)

A. Theories of Freedom of Expression

  • Brandenburg v. Ohio and Notes, pp. 57-60

  • Notes on the history of the first amendment, pp. 3-8
  • Notes on the philosophy of free expression, pp. 9-16
  • Abrams v. United States and Notes, pp. 29-35
  • Gitlow v. New York and Notes, pp. 35-39
  • Whitney v. California and Notes, pp. 40-46
  • Dennis v. United States and Notes, pp. 46-57
  • Note on the Brandenburg formulation, pp. 60-64

Additional Reading

7. Seditious Advocacy and Terrorism (02/14/2022)

8. Vagueness, Overbreadth, and Prior Restraint (02/15/2022)

  • Notes and Gooding v. Wilson, pp. 109-112
  • Note on Overbreadth, pp.112-115
  • Note on Vagueness, pp. 115-116
  • Note on Prior Restraint, p. 116-117
  • Lovell v. Griffin and Notes, pp. 117-122
  • Near v. Minnesota and Notes, pp. 122-124
  • Note on injunctions as prior restraints, pp. 124-127
  • New York Times Co. v. United States and Notes, pp. 93-100
  • Nebraska Press Association v. Stuart and Notes, p. 154

Additional Reading

9. Disclosure of Classified, Sensitive, and Dangerous Information; Fighting Words and Threats (02/21/2022)

A. Classified, Sensitive, and Dangerous Information

B. Fighting Words and the Hostile Audience

  • Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire and Notes, pp. 82-84
  • Notes on Fighting Words, pp. 81-84
  • Terminello v. Chicago, pp. 72-73
  • Cantwell v. Connecticut and Notes, pp. 73-74
  • Feiner v. New York and Notes, pp. 74-77
  • Note on Mechanisms of Control, pp. 77-82
  • Note on Fighting Words, pp. 84-88
  • Note on the Skokie Controversy, pp. 88-90
  • Snyder v. Phelps, pp. 90-93

C. Threats

  • Note and Bridges v. California, pp. 162-163
  • Watts v. United States, p. 163-64
  • Planned Parenthood v. ACLA, pp. 164-166
  • Elonis v. United States, pp. 166-167

10 and 11. Defamation and False Speech (02/22/2022, 02/28/2022)

A. Defamation

  • Note on “Low Value Speech”, pp. 129-130
  • New York Times v. Sullivan and Notes, pp. 130-140
  • Curtis Publishing Co. v. Butts and Notes, pp. 140-141
  • Gertz v. Robert Welch and Notes, pp. 141-143
  • Note on public and private figures, public and private speech, pp. 144-145
  • Dun and Bradstreet v. Greenmoss Builders and Notes, p. 146

B. Intermediary Liability and Intermediary Immunity

C. False Speech and Propaganda

D. Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress

  • Hustler Magazine v. Falwell and Notes, pp. 152-153
  • Snyder v. Phelps, pp. 90-93

12. Pornography and Obscenity (03/01/2022)

A. Obscenity and Pornography

  • Note on Obscenity, pp. 189-190
  • Roth v. United States and Notes, pp. 190-200
  • Miller v. California, pp. 200-203
  • Paris Adult Theatre I v. Slaton and Notes, pp. 203-211
  • Note on Pornography and the Victimization of Women, pp. 279-282

B. Child Pornography

  • New York v. Ferber and Notes, pp. 211-213
  • Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coallition, pp. 213-217
  • Note on Child Pornography, p. 217-218

C. Cruelty to Animals

  • United States v. Stevens, pp. 218-222

13 and 14. Offensive and Indecent Speech (03/07/2022, 03/08/2022)

A. Captive Audiences

  • Cohen v. California and Notes, pp. 226-234
  • Erznoznick v. City of Jacksonville, pp. 234-235

B. Protection of Children

  • FCC v. Pacifica Foundation and Notes, pp. 235-237
  • Note on Fleeting Expletives, pp. 237-38
  • Iancu v. Brunetti, pp.  239-240
  • Sable Communications v. FCC and Notes, pp. 240
  • Action for Children’s Television v. FCC (ACT III)
  • Reno v. ACLU, pp. 240-241
  • Ashcroft v. ACLU, pp. 241-244
  • Note on Indecent Expression, pp. 244-248

C. Violence

  • Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association, pp. 222-226

D. Secondary Effects and Zoning of Sexually Explicit Expression

  • Note on Zoning Theaters with Adult Movies and Bars with Nude Dancing, pp. 248-253

15. Racist Speech and Harassment (03/14/2022)

  • Beauharnais v. Illinois and Notes, pp. 253-255
  • Note on Group Defamation and Hate Speech, pp. 256-262
  • Note on the Skokie Controversy, pp. 88-90
  • R.A.V. v. St. Paul, pp. 262-267
  • Wisconsin v. Mitchell and Notes, pp. 267-270
  • Virginia v. Black and Notes, pp. 270-279
  • Note on Pornography and the Victimization of Women, pp. 279-282
  • Note on Low Value Speech, pp. 282-284

Additional Reading

16. What is Speech? (03/15/2022)

  • Notes and United States v. O’Brien, pp. 376-388
  • Note on flag desecration and misuse, pp. 388-394
  • Barnes v. Glen Theatre, pp. 394-398
  • City of Erie v. Pap’s A.M., pp. 398-399
  • Note on other forms of symbolic speech, pp. 399-401
  • Village of Schaumberg v. Citizens For A Better Environment (on Canvas)
  • Universal Studios v. Corley (2d Cir.) (also on Canvas)
  • Defense Distributed v. Department of State (5th Cir.) (on Canvas)

17. Commercial Speech (03/28/2022)

Additional Reading

18. Privacy (03/29/2022)

Additional Reading

Part III– Regulation of Time, Place, and Manner

19. Time, Place and Manner Regulation (04/04/2022)

A. Content Neutral Regulation

  • Notes and Schneider v. State, p. 286
  • Martin v. City of Struthers, p. 287
  • Kovacs v. Cooper, p. 288
  • Metromedia, Inc. v. San Diego and Notes, pp. 289-290
  • City of Ladue v. Gilleo, pp. 290-291
  • Bartnicki v. Vopper, pp. 291-292
  • Note on The Search for Principles, pp. 292-294
  • Note on the meaning of content neutrality, pp. 294-298
  • C. Edwin Baker, The Independent Significance of the Press Clause
  • Barr v American Association of Political Consultants, Inc. (on Canvas)

B. The Public Forum

  • Note and Commonwealth v. Davis, pp. 298-299
  • Hague v. CIO and Notes, pp. 300-301
  • Schneider v. State and Notes, pp. 301-302
  • Notes on regulating the public forum, pp. 302-308
  • Note on devices for regulating the public forum, pp. 308-311

20. Public, Limited, and Non-Public Forums (04/05/2022)

A. Limited Public Forums and Non-Public Forums

  • Adderley v. Florida and Notes, pp. 311-318
  • International Society for Krishna Consciousness v. Lee, and Notes pp. 318-320
  • Note on modern public forum doctrine, pp. 321-322
  • Note on the right to a private forum, pp. 321-324
  • Police Department of Chicago v. Mosley and Notes, pp. 324-329
  • Lehman v. City of Shaker Heights and Notes, pp. 330-336
  • Perry Educators’ Association v. Perry Local Educator’s Association and Notes, pp. 337-338
  • Note on quintessential, designated, and non-public forums, pp. 338-343
  • Note on religious expression and the meaning of “viewpoint neutrality”, pp. 343-347
  • Christian Legal Society v. Martinez, pp. 347-351
  • Reed v. Town of Gilbert, pp. 351-352
  • Lyrissa Lidsky, Government Sponsored Social Media

Part IV– The First Amendment in the Regulatory and Welfare State

21. Government Speech and Government Subsidies to Speech (04/11/2022)

  • Note and Southeastern Promotions v. Conrad, pp. 352-355
  • Board of Education v. Pico and Notes, pp. 355-357
  • Regan v. Taxation with Representation and Notes, pp. 357-359
  • NEA v. Finley, pp. 359-362
  • Rust v. Sullivan and Notes, pp. 362-367
  • Legal Services Corporation v. Velazquez, pp. 367-368
  • Agency for International Development v. Alliance for Open Society International, pp. 368-371
  • Agency for International Development v. Alliance for Open Society International II (AOSI II) (on Canvas)
  • Note on the reach of government speech: Summum, Walker, and Matal, pp. 371-376

22. Freedom of Association and Compelled Affirmation of Belief (04/12/2022)

A. Associational Formation

  • NAACP v. Button and Notes, pp. 402-403
  • Note on Litigation and the First Amendment, pp. 403-404
  • NAACP v. Alabama and Notes, pp. 404-405
  • Talley v. California (discussion note 3), p. 310-311
  • Roberts v. U.S. Jaycees and Notes, pp. 405-406
  • Note on Association and the First Amendment, pp. 407-408
  • Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, and Notes, pp. 408-412
  • Americans for Prosperity Foundation v Bonta (on Canvas)

B. Compelled Affirmation of Belief

  • Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, p. 412-413
  • Note on Compelled Affirmation of Belief, pp. 413-421
  • 303 Creative LLC v. Elenis (on Canvas)
  • Agency for International Development v. Alliance for Open Society International II (AOSI II) (on Canvas)

23. Goverment Employment, Speech in Schools (04/18/2022)

A. Government Employment

  • Note on Regulating the Political Activities of Public Employees, pp. 473-477
  • Note on Abridgment of Speech Other Than by Direct Criminal Prohibition (including regulation of speech and association by government employees), pp. 66-72
  • Materials on Government Employee Free Speech Protections (on Canvas)

B. Speech in Schools

24. Campaign Finance (04/19/2022)

  • Buckley v. Valeo and Notes, pp. 421-434
  • Note on subsidy and disclosure, pp. 434-437
  • Note: Campaign Finance Regulation in the Thirty Years After Buckley, pp. 437-441
  • McConnell v. FEC (soft money issues), pp 441-444
  • Note: Campaign Finance and the Roberts Court, pp. 444-448
  • Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, pp. 449-463
  • McCutcheon v. Federal Election Commission, pp. 463-467
  • Commentary on the Campaign Finance Cases, pp. 467-471
  • Note on Additional Regulation of the Political Process, pp. 471-473
  • Bluman v. FEC

25. Freedom of the Press; Telecommunications Regulation (04/25/2022)

A. Freedom of the Press

  • Note on the Status of the Press, pp. 481-483
  • Branzburg v. Hayes and Notes,  pp. 483-490
  • Note: A Press Right of Access to Information, pp. 490-492
  • Richmond Newspapers v. Virginia, pp. 492-494
  • Globe Newspaper Co. v. Superior Court, pp. 494-495
  • Note on Variations on the Press Right of Access, pp. 495-496
  • Note and Minneapolis Star & Tribune Co. v. Minnesota Commissioner of Revenue, pp. 496-498
  • Note on Differential Treatment, pp. 498-500

B. Telecommunications Regulation

  • Miami Herald v. Tornillo and Notes, pp. 501-502
  • Red Lion v. FCC and Notes, pp. 502-504
  • Note on Regulating the Airwaves, pp. 505-507
  • Turner Broadcasting System v. FCC (Turner I) and Notes, pp. 507-511

26. Internet Regulation  (04/26/2022)

A. Telecommunications Regulation and the Internet

B. Platform Regulation