Constitutional Law Fall Semester 2004 Syllabus

Constitutional Law

Professor Jack M. Balkin

Yale Law School


Unless otherwise noted, all page references are to Brest, Levinson, Balkin and Amar, Processes of Constitutional Decisionmaking (4th ed. 2000). Readings in the 2004 Supplement to the casebook are noted as “2004 Supplement.”

N.B. If you cannot obtain the 2004 Supplement in the first few weeks of class, you may download the relevant materials from the links on this website.

1. Introduction: Interpreting the Constitution

  • The Constitution of the United States, pp. xli-lvi

  • Historical Background of the Constitution, pp. 1-7
  • Note on the First Bank, pp. 7-8
  • James Madison’s Speech on the Bank, pp. 8-11
  • Notes on the First Bank, pp. 11-16
  • Note on the Second Bank, pp. 16-17
  • McCulloch v. Maryland and Notes, pp. 17-40, 44-51
  • Note on the Louisiana Purchase, pp. 73-74

2. Constitutional Interpreters

A. Judicial Review

  • Note on the Marshall Court, pp. 71-73

  • Note on Judicial Review of State Legislation, pp. 75-79
  • Notes and Marbury v. Madison, pp. 79-96
  • Stuart v. Laird and Notes, 2004 Supplement, pp. 1-3
  • Notes on Federal Jurisdiction, pp. 730-735

B. What if the President disagrees with the Court about the meaning of the Constitution?

  • Andrew Jackson’s Veto Message and Notes, pp. 51-56

  • Note on Presidential Authority, pp. 56-58

C. Can the States resist a law they believe to be unconstitutional?

  • The Alien and Sedition Acts, pp. 60-61

  • Note on the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798-99, pp. 65-67
  • Note on the Doctrine of Nullification, pp. 67-70

D. What does “commerce among the several states” mean and who can regulate it?

  • Gibbons v. Ogden and Notes, pp. 126-137

  • Note on Language, Purpose, and Meaning, pp. 138-143
  • Note on the Taney Court, pp. 145-148
  • Note on Interstate Federalism and the National Economy, pp. 614-620

3. Natural Law and Slavery

  • Notes on Judicial Review, pp. 96-103

  • Note on the Natural Law Tradition and Calder v. Bull, pp. 109-114 (Note particularly Barron v. City of Baltimore, p. 113)
  • Note: Is Constitutional Law a Comedy or a Tragedy?, pp. 114-117
  • Women’s Citizenship in the Antebellum Era, pp. 121-126
  • Notes on Slavery, pp. 168-172
  • Notes and Prigg v. Pennsylvania, pp. 173-181
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford and Notes, pp. 182-207
  • Frederick Douglass, The Constitution of the United States: Is it Pro-Slavery or Anti-Slavery? and Notes, pp. 207-211
  • Note on the Lincoln-Douglas Debates, pp. 211-214

4. The Civil War and the War Power

  • Notes and Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address, pp. 214-215

  • Senator Benjamin’s speech on the case for secession, pp. 215-219
  • The Prize Cases, pp. 219-222
  • Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer and Notes, pp. 704-724
  • Note on the Emancipation Proclamation, pp. 225-231
  • Note on Congressional Resolutions regarding Afghanistan and Iraq, 2004 Supplement, pp. 161

5. The Civil War, Emergency and Civil Rights

  • Notes on the Suspension of Habeas Corpus, pp. 222-225

  • Ex Parte Milligan and Notes, 2004 Supp., pp. 5-9
  • Ex Parte Quirin and Notes, 2004 Supp., pp. 9-22
  • Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Rumsfeld v. Padilla, Rasul v. Bush and Notes, 2004 Supp., pp. 22-65
  • Note on Torture and Presidential Power, 2004 Supp., pp. 65-67
  • Korematsu v. United States and Notes, pp. 810-822
  • The Legal Tender Cases, pp. 231-239

6. Reconstruction and Reaction

A. Introduction

  • History of the Adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, pp. 241-249

  • Note on The Unusual Procedural History of the Fourteenth Amendment, pp. 249-255
  • The Fourteenth Amendment, pp. li-lii

B. The Reconstruction Amendments and the Privileges and Immunities of National Citizenship

  • The Slaughterhouse Cases and Notes, pp. 315-330

  • Note on The New Departure pp. 265-270
  • Bradwell v. Illinois and Notes, pp. 330-332

C. The Reconstruction Amendments and Race

  • Strauder v. West Virginia and Notes, pp. 259-265

  • Plessy v. Ferguson and Notes, pp. 270-281
  • Charles Black, the Lawfulness of the Segregation Decisions, pp. 281-283
  • Note on The Spirit of Plessy, pp. 283-285
  • The Civil Rights Cases and Notes, pp. 285-296

7. The Lochner Era

A. Due Process

  • Notes on the Rise of Substantive Due Process, pp. 332-337

  • Lochner v. State of New York and Notes, pp. 337-343
  • Notes on the Jurisprudence of the Lochner Era, pp. 343-351

B. Federalism and National Powers

  • Notes and Champion v. Ames, pp. 355-362

  • Hammer v. Dagenhart and Notes, pp. 362-369
  • Note on the Taxing Power, pp. 369-371
  • Note on the Spending Power, pp. 371-374
  • Note on the Treaty Power, pp. 374-378

C. The Progressive Era Amendments

  • Constitutional Innovation during the Progressive Period, pp. 387-399

8. The New Deal and the Emergence of the Modern Paradigm– The Commerce Clause

  • NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp. and Notes, pp. 464-465

  • United States v. Darby and Notes, pp. 465-468
  • Wickard v. Filburn and Notes, pp. 468-471

9. The Modern Paradigm of Constitutional Scrutiny

  • Nebbia v. New York and Notes, pp. 415-417

  • Home Building & Loan Association v. Blaisdell and Notes, pp. 417-426
  • Notes and West Coast Hotel v. Parrish, pp. 426-428
  • U.S. v. Carolene Products Co., pp. 428-435
  • Williamson v. Lee Optical Co. and Notes, pp. 435-442
  • Notes on Incorporation, pp. 401-410

10. National Power from the New Deal to the Rehnquist Court

A. The Modern Regulatory State

  • Notes on the Taxing and Spending Powers, pp. 476-483

  • South Dakota v. Dole and Notes, pp. 533-535

B. The Warren Court and the Civil Rights Movement

  • Notes on the use of the Commerce Power in Civil Rights Legislation and Katzenbach v. McClung, pp. 471-476

  • Notes and South Carolina v. Katzenbach, pp. 483-488
  • Katzenbach v. Morgan and Notes, pp. 488-503
  • Jones v. Alfred Mayer Co. and Notes, pp. 503-505

11. The Contemporary Debate over National Power

A. The Reach of the Commerce Clause

  • United States v. Lopez and Notes, pp. 511-533

  • United States v. Morrison and Notes, 2004 Supplement, pp. 69-100

B. Implied Limits on Federal Regulation of the States

  • Notes on State Sovereignty, pp. 551-555

  • Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority and Notes, pp. 555-565
  • New York v. United States and Notes, pp. 576-595
  • Printz v. United States, pp. 595-608
  • Alden v. Maine and Notes on the Eleventh Amendment, pp. 608-613

C. Congressional Power to Enforce the Civil War Amendments

  • City of Boerne v. Flores, pp. 535-551

  • United States v. Morrison and Notes, 2003 Supplement, pp. 100-110
  • Note: The Reconstruction Power, The Eleventh Amendment, and Sovereign Immunity, 2004 Supplement, pp. 110-113
  • Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett and Notes, 2004 Supplement, pp. 113-131
  • Hibbs v. Department of Social Services, 2004 Supplement, pp 132-146
  • Tennesee v. Lane, 2004 Supplement, pp.146-157

12. The Rehnquist Court and the Election of 2000

  • Note on Presidential Selection, pp. 728-730

  • Bush v. Gore and Notes, 2003 Supplement, pp. 103-133

13. The Modern Debate over Racial Equality

A. Brown and Its Legacy

  • Notes on the Original Understanding of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Background to the School Desegregation Case, pp. 737-742

  • Brown v. Board of Education and Notes, pp. 742-746
  • Notes on Brown and the Original Understanding, pp. 746-763
  • Reflections on the Opinion in Brown, pp. 764-768

B. School Desegregation

  • Four Decades of School Desegregation, pp. 768-787

  • Missouri v. Jenkins and Notes, pp. 788-794
  • Note: Toward “Separate But Truly Equal”?, p. 800

14. The Antidiscrimination Principle

A. Anticlassification and Antisubordination

  • Loving v. Virginia and Notes, pp. 801-810

  • Note on Discrimination Against Asian-Americans and the Black/White Paradigm, pp. 823-824
  • What Justifies the Suspect Classification Standard, pp. 824-831

B. What is “Race”?

  • Hernandez v. Texas and Notes, pp. 831-835

  • Batson v. Kentucky, Hernandez v. New York, and Notes, pp. 876-884
  • Note on the Social and Legal Construction of Race, pp. 835-841
  • Note on Custody, Adoption, and Race, pp. 841-846
  • Note on Racial Profiling and the Equal Protection Clause, pp. 892-894
  • Brown v. City of Oneonta, 2003 Supplement, pp. 135-137
  • Note on Racial Profiling After 9/11, 2004 Supplement, pp. 195-197

15. What Constitutes Discrimination “based on” Race?

A. Intent

  • What is a “Race-Dependent” Decision, pp. 846-849

  • Note and Griggs v. Duke Power Co., pp. 849-851
  • Washington v. Davis and Notes, pp. 851-860
  • Commentaries on the Intent Standard, pp. 860-867
  • Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp. and Notes, pp. 867-873

B. Race and the Criminal Process

  • United States v. Clary and Notes, pp. 873-876

  • McCleskey v. Kemp and Notes, pp. 884-892

16. Affirmative Action

  • City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co., and Notes, pp. 926-953

  • Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger, 2004 Supplement, pp. 197-252
  • Note on Affirmative Action and Original Intention, pp. 967-973

17. Gender Classifications and Gender Equality

A. Basic Theoretical Issues

  • Notes and Frontiero v. Richardson, pp. 985-994

  • Note on the Equal Rights Amendment, pp. 994-996
  • What Justifies Special Constitutional Scrutiny, pp. 996-1007

B. Separate Facilities for Men and Women

  • United States v. Virginia and Notes, pp. 1025-1044

  • Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan and Notes, pp. 1044-1050
  • The Rejection of “Archaic and Overbroad” Generalizations, pp 1007-1015
  • Note on Discrimination Against Women of Color, pp. 1021-1022
  • Garrett v. Board of Education and Notes, pp. 1050-1053
  • Note on Sex, Gender, and Sexual Orientation, pp. 1022-1025

C. Women in the Military

  • The History of Women’s Military Service and the Combat Exclusion, pp. 1104-1106

  • The Constitutionality of the Combat Exclusion, pp. 1106-1108
  • The Draft, pp. 1109-1113

18. What is Discrimination “on the basis of” Sex?

A. Intent

  • Personnel Administrator of Massachusetts v. Feeney and Notes, pp. 1053-1060

  • Note on Domestic Violence and the Equal Protection Clause, pp. 1060-1065

B. Pregnancy

  • Geduldig v. Aiello and Notes, pp. 1065-1073

  • Tuan Anh Nguyen v. INS, 2003 Supplement, pp. 257-272
  • Note on Putative Parenthood, pp. 1087-1088
  • Note on Sex Neutrality in Rape Laws, pp. 1088-1089
  • Notes and Michael M. v. Superior Court and Notes, pp. 1089-1102
  • Frances Olsen, Statutory Rape: A Feminist Critique of Rights Analysis, pp. 1102-1104
  • Affirmative Action, pp. 1113-1119

20. Other Suspect Classifications

A. Disabilty

  • City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center and Notes, pp. pp. 1119-1129

B. Alien Status

  • Graham v. Richardson and Notes, pp. 1493-1495

  • Bernal v. Fainter and Notes, pp. 1495-1505

21. Modern Substantive Due Process: “Privacy,” Sexual Autonomy or Tradition?

  • Notes and Griswold v. Connecticut, pp. 1131-1146

  • Theories of Fundamental Rights Adjudication, pp. 1146-1155
  • Notes and Michael H. v. Gerald D, pp. 1155-1171
  • Atkins v. Virginia and Notes, 2004 Supplement, pp. 273-275
  • Washington v. Glucksberg, Vacco v. Quill, and Notes, pp. 1340-1360

22. Abortion and Gender Discrimination

  • Roe v. Wade and Notes, pp. 1172-1188

  • Note: Was Roe a Political Mistake?, pp. 1188-1190
  • Abortion and the Equal Protection Clause, pp. 1190-1199
  • Note on Decisions After Roe, pp. 1199-1202
  • Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey and Notes, pp. 1202-1242
  • Stenberg v. Carhart and Notes, 2004 Supplement, pp. 289-296

23. Sexual Orientation– Due Process or Equal Protection?

  • Bowers v. Hardwick and Notes, pp. 1242-1259

  • Lawrence v. Texas and Notes, 2004 Supp, pp. 296-323
  • Watkins v. United States Army and Notes, pp. 1275-1297
  • Note on Military Service and the Don’t Ask Don’t Tell Policy, pp. 1297-1300
  • Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, 2004 Supplement, pp. 323-344
  • Baker v. State and Notes, 2004 Supplement, pp. 344-349
  • Boy Scouts of America v. Dale and Notes, 2004 Supplement, pp. 349-355

24. The Constitutional Status of the Welfare State: Rights to Government Services

  • Note on Constitutional Barriers to the Welfare State, pp. 1361-1364

  • The Rise of the Modern Welfare State, pp. 1397-1400
  • Shapiro v. Thompson, pp. 1505-1513
  • Does the Constitution Affirmatively Guarantee Any Welfare Rights?, pp. 1370-1381
  • San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez and Notes, pp. 1543-1560
  • Plyler v. Doe and Notes, pp. 1560-1571
  • Note and Deshaney v. Winnebago County Department of Social Services, pp. 1384-1393
  • Lyng v. International Union, United Auto Workers and Notes, pp. 1364-1370
  • Note on Unconstitutional Conditions, pp. 1415-1419
  • Maher v. Roe and Notes, pp. 1526-1536